Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All
Survival of the fittest has been the mantra all throughout the ages for the various societies while inspiring the reigning generation to work in the spirited manner in order achieve even the target seeming impossible at that point of time. But now the time has changed and world have started realising that harmony and mutual sharing of Knowledge, Resources and Capabilities is the key to have a Sustainable life. Sustainability and Equity have emerged as the two very basic and intertwined targets to be addressed by the Global Order for having the Peace Prevailing throughout the world. Economy, Society and Environment are the three basic pillars for the continuous survival of any civilization or the all civilizations together. Development should be Equitable, Bearable and Viable. Planning Commission of India have in its 12th Five Year plan have given focus to Faster, Sustainable and More inclusive growth.
The 2011 Human Development Report have also put forth that the urgent global challenges of sustainability and equity must be addressed together and identifies policies on the national and global level that could spur mutually reinforcing progress towards these interlinked goals. Bold action is needed on both fronts, the Report contends, if the recent human development progress for most of the world’s poor majority is to be sustained, for the benefit of future generations as well as for those living today. Past Reports have shown that living standards in most countries have been rising - and converging - for several decades now. Yet the 2011 Report projects a disturbing reversal of those trends if environmental deterioration and social inequalities continue to intensify, with the least developed countries diverging downwards from global patterns of progress by 2050.
Sustainable development is such a development where Interest of present Generation is equitably addressed without jeopardizing the interest of the future generations.
The Reports highlights an important issue that how the world’s most underprivileged people suffer the most from environmental degradation, including in their immediate personal environment, and disproportionately lack political power, making it all the harder for the world community to reach agreement on needed global policy changes. The Report also outlines great potential for positive synergies in the quest for greater equality and sustainability, especially at the national level. The Report further emphasizes the human right to a healthy environment, the importance of integrating social equity into environmental policies, and the critical importance of public participation and official accountability. The HDR 2011 concludes with a bold direction for having such measures being adopted where better care can be taken in creating Intra generational and Intergenerational Equity without compromising the essence of the Healthy Environment Surrounding us.
The Human Development Report 2011 focus and try to suggest the measures to address a very important question that how there can be created an effective balance in the Sustainable Environment and Human Development. For this the work at Local, National and Global strategies need to be devised aiming the context in consideration. Report identifies win-win-win strategies that demonstrate success in addressing our social, economic and environmental challenges by managing, or even bypassing, trade-offs through approaches that are good not only for the environment but also for equity and human development more broadly. Sustainability and Equity need to combined with Delivery of Democracy. It is the People who should be the Source and Concentration of Power. Arab spring have told the world that if the people's democratic rights are not addressed to - what can happen?
What is HDR?
The Human Development Report is an independent publication commissioned by the New York based United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the reports editorial autonomy is guaranteed by a special resolution of the General Assembly which recognizes the Human Development Report as “an independent intellectual exercise” and “an important tool for raising awareness about human development around the world."
The first Report was launched in 1990 by the efforts of Mehbub ul Haque of Pakistan and Amartya Sen of India assisted by many others with the goal of putting people at the center of development, going beyond income to assess people’s long-term well-being. Since 1990 the report is published every year.
HDR 2011 is the latest report which was released on 2nd November 2011 with the theme of Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All. The report studied 187 countries ( 185 out of 193 UN members and Hongkong and Palestine). India ranks 134 out of 187 countries in 2011 whereas India ranked 119 out of 169 countries in 2010. A steady progress in the country’s Human Development Index (hdi) value could be gauged from the 1.51 per cent growth achieved over the 1980-2011 time period. Albeit India's Inequality adjusted HDI (IHDI) fell from 0.392 in 2010 to 0.365 in 2011 indicating the loss due to the rising inequality . India’s Gender Inequality Index value is 0.617 and it ranks 129 out of 146 countries in this measure. The Multidimensional Poverty Index value is 0.283 for the country.
HDR brings out the various policy choices on the basis of the various Indices to evaluate progress in Human development, Equality, reducing poverty and empowering women.
The Human Development Index (HDI) measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life (Life Expectancy at birth) , access to knowledge (Education) and a decent standard of living (Per Capita Income). These three dimensions are put on a scale of 0 to 1, where greater is better.
The education component of the HDI is now measured by mean of years of schooling for adults aged 25 years and expected years of schooling for children of school entering age. Expected years of schooling is capped at 18 years. The indicators are normalized using a minimum value of zero and maximum values are set to the actual observed maximum value of mean years of schooling from the countries in the time series, 1980–2010, that is 13.1 years estimated for Czech Republic in 2005. Expected years of schooling is maximized by its cap at 18 years. The education index is the geometric mean of two indices.
The life expectancy at birth component of the HDI is calculated using a minimum value of 20 years and maximum value of 83.4 years. This is the observed maximum value of the indicators from the countries in the time series, 1980–2010. Thus, the longevity component for a country where life expectancy birth is 55 years would be 0.552.
For the wealth component, the goalpost for minimum income is $100 (PPP) and the maximum is $107,721 (PPP), both estimated during the same period, 1980-2011. The decent standard of living component is measured by GNI per capita (PPP$) instead of GDP per capita (PPP$). The HDI uses the logarithm of income, to reflect the diminishing importance of income with increasing GNI. The scores for the three HDI dimension indices are then aggregated into a composite index using geometric mean.
The Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) adjusts the Human Development Index (HDI) for inequality in distribution of each dimension across the population. The IHDI accounts for inequalities in HDI dimensions by “discounting” each dimension’s average value according to its level of inequality. The IHDI equals the HDI when there is no inequality across people but is less than the HDI as inequality rises. In this sense, the IHDI is the actual level of human development (accounting for this inequality), while the HDI can be viewed as an index of “potential” human development (or the maximum level of HDI) that could be achieved if there was no inequality. The “loss” in potential human development due to inequality is given by the difference between the HDI and the IHDI and can be expressed as a percentage.
The Gender Inequality Index (GII) reflects women’s disadvantage in three dimensions—reproductive health, empowerment and the labour market—for as many countries as data of reasonable quality allow. The index shows the loss in human development due to inequality between female and male achievements in these dimensions. It ranges from 0, which indicates that women and men fare equally, to 1, which indicates that women fare as poorly as possible in all measured dimensions.
The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) identifies multiple deprivations at the individual level in health, education and standard of living. It uses micro data from household surveys, and—unlike the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index—all the indicators needed to construct the measure must come from the same survey. Each person in a given household is classified as poor or non poor depending on the number of deprivations his or her household experiences. These data are then aggregated into the national measure of poverty.
poverty anywhere is a threat to prosperity everywhere
“Poverty is the worst form of violence.”, Gandhi ji
"it is necessary that we touch upon the world's problems, not with passion and prejudice but in a friendly way and with a touch of healing . We have begun this new association with a touch of healing." Jawahar Lal Nehru
India in the HDR 2011
India ranked 134 in HDR 2011 with the HDI value of 0.547 below the South asian average of 0.548.
Expenditure on health, public (% of GDP) 1.1
Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births) 66
Life expectancy at birth (years) 65.4
Health index (life expectancy) 0.717
Public expenditure on education (% of GDP) 3.1
Expected years of schooling (of children under 7) (years) 10.3
Adult literacy rate, both sexes (% aged 15 and above) 62.8
Mean years of schooling (of adults over 25) (years) 4.4
Education index (expected and mean years of schooling) 0.450
Combined gross enrolment in education (both sexes) (%) 62.6
GDP per capita in PPP terms (constant 2005 international $) 2,993
GNI per capita in PPP terms (constant 2005 international $) 3,468
Income index (GNI per capita) 0.508
Income Gini coefficient 36.8
Loss due to inequality in life expectancy (%) 27.1
Loss due to inequality in education (%) 40.6
Loss due to inequality in income (%) 14.7
Inequality-adjusted education index 0.267
Inequality-adjusted life expectancy index 0.522
Inequality-adjusted income index 0.433
Inequality-adjusted HDI 0.392
Multidimensional Poverty Index (%) 0.283
MPI: Intensity of deprivation 52.7
Headcount of MPI poor (% of population) 53.7
Population living below $1.25 PPP per day (%) 41.6
Population with at least secondary education (Ratio of female to male rates) 0.528
Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women aged 15-19) 86.3
Labour force participation rate (Ratio of female to male shares) 0.404
Gender Inequality Index 0.617
Shares in parliament, female-male ratio 0.119
Maternal mortality ratio (deaths of women per 100,000 live births) 230
Endangered species (% of all species) 13
Ecological footprint of consumption (global hectares per capita) 0.9
Adjusted net savings (% of GNI) 24.1
Greenhouse gases per capita (tonnes of CO2 equivalent) 0.7
Fresh water withdrawals (% of actual total renewable water resources) 40.1
Natural resource depletion (% of GNI) 4.2
Carbon dioxide per capita emission (growth 1970-2008) (%) 3.8
Forest area (thousand ha) 68,144
Change in forest area (%) 6.6
Impact of natural disasters: number of deaths (average per year per million people) 2
Impact of natural disasters: population affected (average per year per million people) 41,245
Environmental Performance Index 48.3
Forest area (% of total land area) 22.9
Carbon Dioxide Emissions per capita (tonnes) 1.5
Population, total both sexes (thousands) 1,241,492.0
Population, urban (% of population) 30.3
Population, female (thousands) 600,477.34
Population, male (thousands) 641,014.62
Dependency ratio : The ratio of the population defined as dependent—those under 15 and over 65—to the working-age population, aged 15–64.
Infant mortality rate : The probability of dying between birth and exactly one year of age times 1,000.
Infants with low birth-weight : The percentage of babies born weighing less than 2,500 grams.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) : At the PPP rate, one dollar has the same purchasing power over domestic GDP that the US dollar has over US GDP. PPP could also be expressed in other national currencies or in special drawing rights (SDRs). PPP rates allow a standard comparison of real price levels between countries, just as conventional price indexes allow comparison of real values over time; otherwise, normal exchange rates may over or undervalue purchasing power.
Very high, high, medium, low HDI groups : Country classifications based on HDI quartiles. A country is in the very high group if its HDI is in the top quartile, in the high group if its HDI is in percentiles 51–75, in the medium group if its HDI is in percentiles 26–50 and in the low group if its HDI is in the bottom quartile. Earlier HDRs used absolute rather than relative thresholds.
Gross domestic product (GDP) : The total output of goods and services for final use produced by an economy by both residents and non-residents, regardless of the allocation to domestic and foreign claims. It does not include deductions for depreciation of physical capital or depletion and degradation of natural resources.
Gross national product (GNP) : Comprises GDP plus net factor income from abroad, which is the income residents receive from abroad for factor ser- vices (labour and capital), less similar payments made to non-residents who contribute to the domestic economy.
Sustainability and Equity: A Better Future for All
Survival of the fittest has been the mantra all throughout the ages for the various societies while inspiring the reigning generation to work in the spirited manner in order achieve even the target seeming impossible at that point of time. But now the time has changed and world have started realising that harmony and mutual sharing of Knowledge, Resources and Capabilities is the key to have a Sustainable life. Sustainability and Equity have emerged as the two very basic and intertwined targets to be addressed by the Global Order for having the Peace Prevailing throughout the world.
BETTER TO DIE IN BATTLE WITH A GOD THAN TO LIVE IN SHAME
"If we have to go down, we have to go down fighting," statement made by the PM on September 14, on the outset may look as if it is a courageous decision of a government which for the last eight years could not take the economic reforms decision citing coalition dharma.
Morning of the Sunday, 9th September 2012 began with an important historic milestone in the journey of the Indian Space Programme when 100th mission of ISRO lifted off from the First launch pad at Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota (SDSC, SHAR) at 9.53am. Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C21) put in orbit two foreign satellites in the presence of the PM Manmohan SIngh.
On May 21, Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee tabled the White Paper on Black Money in the Lok Sabha acknowledging black money has a ‘debilitating effect’ on governance and public policy and this affects the poor disproportionately.
Let the whole world know that it is the Peole of India Who are supreme and not the Parliment of India
Accepted...Fine...If th e Battle Lines are Drawn and it need to be decided here and Now only..then take it...
WE, the People of INDIA, are the words with which the Constitution of India begins with and the Preamble of Indian constitution undoubtedly establishes the people as the source of authority for the Constitution of India.